HEADS-UP: awo’s kearns and la muralist hinds to collaborate on 7/23 poz life weekend storytelling circle: sound of 100 hearts (329)

June 18th, 2006

Alex Simring aids-write.org hinds bllueface

chers,

i am very excited to announce plans for the hiv storytelling circle at the poz life weekend coming up july 22-23, 2006, location to be announced.

tomas hinds and i are creating an art installation for the 7/23 9 am sunday morning poz life presentation. tomas is an la-area muralist and artist, and probably his best-known work is the trashed tv installation on the freeway pillars up by griffith park. this is a sample of that work, a picture taken at his studio yesterday:

tomas hinds aids-write.org freedumb

hinds teaches an art class for 5-10-year-olds in the la unified school district. members of the class will be creating one hundred ceramic hearts with holes in them, to be threaded with ribbons for wearing & hangining, displayed (installed) and then given away to participants in the poz life seminar. (the photograph below is a picture of the clay students will use to make the hearts.) kearns will demonstrate how to use the hearts: like seashells, hear your own faint stories by listening at the hole in year heart.

Alex Simring aids-write.org bucket of clay

we are trying to make arrangements for the kids in the class (and their parents) to attend the presentation / installation. i will be visiting the class tomorrow (monday) to meet the students and discuss the project with them.

we are tremendously excited about the project, and anticipate it will be a rare, unusual, memorable, powerful & life-affirming presentation. if you can’t attend any other part of the july 22-23 poz life weekend, attend this. we aim for it to be a remarkable and inspiring experience.

9 am sunday morning july 23!!!!!!!!!!!!! you gotta get up early to see it! (like the dawn)

namasté

–lyr

life group logo

please click on this sentence (or the banner above) to go to the life group la site and register for the upcoming poz life weekend, july 22-23, 2006.

aids-write.org table of contents for 6/17/2006

June 17th, 2006

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top posts:

Alex Simring aids-write.org mousetrap logo

first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328) suite sheet

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics

Alex Simring aids-write.org shite: definition

aids-write.org signs on as honorary co-sponsor for la county medical marijuana exposition & patient’s festival september 30 in weho (327)

mmj duo graphic small

gates to quit: philanthropy comes first (326)

kearns to speak on panel, offer open poem & propose yearly prevention anthology, “the state of aids” to the june,14, 2006 ahf-hosted community forum / discussion about the social marketing campaign “hiv (not fabulous)” at plummer park from 6-7:30 pm (324)

Alex Simring aids-write.org angled me
Alex Simring aids-write.org had a boyfriend

kearns to present “our tales: hiv storytelling circle” on sunday morning at poz life weekend seminar, july 22-23, 2006 (323)

life group logo

macy’s celebrates gay pride in boston by mounting, then removing “most offensive part” of “boston pride” display window (two “gay” mannequins with pecs and nipples showing thru shirts, one wearing a rainbow flag-like beach towel) after an effective pressure campaign is quickly & successfully grandstanded by anti-gay group massResistance, formerly article 8. all sides are pissed at macy’s/federated.

322.1 suite sheet
322.2 overview: two news items from boston

322.3 wingnuts
322.4 brian camenker—wikipedia entry & link
322.5 brian camenker—towleroad entry & link
322.6 boston herald columnist/radio talkshow host margery eagan blasts camenker & link
322.7 brian camenker in response & link (massResistenceWatch)
322.8 brian camenker’s successful campaign: seven things to learn
322.9 cindy beal on brian camenker’s tactics in 2000 & rk’s text comments & link

Alex Simring aids-write.org shite: definition

earth science or political science? nasa says, “earth’s ozone layer appears to be on the road to recovery.” (321)

wise guys king, kliban & kearns converse with everyman dobson in observance of aids-write.org’s first birthday (320)

two elephant man stories (319)

excerpt from the jurors’ handbook: a citizen’s guide to jury duty (318)


Please click on this sentence and donate tax-deductibly to aids-write.org.


adventures in unimaginable numbers:
from the npp (national priorities project), a nifty little counter of the ever-accumulating dollar-cost of the iraq war. npp estimates the war money could have fully funded world-wide aids/hiv programs for 27 years, though that much bang for warbucks difficult to imagine. the need is so underestimated. i thought medicine was expensive. war is obscenely expensive, unless you are ceo of halliburton as well as vp. then it can’t cost enough.

original text and graphics posted on aids-write.org © 2006, 2005 by Alex Simring. other persons own their own work, as noted. permission granted to reprint with acknowledgment. tell me about it too. i also recognize and practice fair use as best i can.

Medical Dictionary

kaiser family foundation global hiv/aids timeline

kaiser timeline button

first movement of ahf not fab forum report — not getting caught (328) suite sheet

June 17th, 2006

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first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328) suite sheet

chers,

this is my first set of posts (six of ‘em) reporting on the june 14, 2006, ahf-sponsored community forum on social marketing at plummer park in west hollywood. i am really hoping for additional thoughtful responses to it to turn it into dialog.

first set—————————————

part one—suite sheet
part two–how these notes were taken
part three—overall impressions– not a fear campaign, but a perceived guilt campaign
part four—summary, source document (my notes), with seperate entries for each panelist, questioner/commenter exchange and email responder sets
part five—an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics

part six—wikipedia article on ethics

publication———————————

in the second set————————-

part seven—yearly anthology proposal
part eight–comments and responses
part nine—ahf ought to quit business letter
other overall impressions after discussion modules added later

hope to hear back from you. to comment, click on the word “comments” below for a dialog box, or go directly to the posting form if you see it at the bottom of the post.

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first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328) suite sheet

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics

328.02 not getting caught — ahf not fab forum report: an imperfect record (why i took the notes)

June 17th, 2006

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328.02 not getting caught: ahf not fab forum report: an imperfect record

when you read this report of the aids healthcare foundation-sponsored community forum on social marketing, which met wednesday evening, june 14, 2006 in plummer park, based on my notes, please be mindful of my motive for taking those notes: i was not trying to create a public record. i was helping myself listen.

while listening to panelists and forum speakers, i would also make notes to be clear on the points and mindful of possible responses later. additionally, people talked too fast. when i couldn’t keep up, i just skipped writing it all down and went to listening and recording in that new present moment. so my notes were really a working listening aid, written for myself, in order to be articulate and coherent during the discussion. they have already served their purpose. but because they have accidental permanence, they form an imperfect record. their usefulness is limited, and their relationship to any public record is incidental.

i am happy to post corrections and comments and expansions and amendments to this imperfect record. and discussion. it is a working document still, recursively composed.

–lyr
310-488-1328

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first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328)

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics

328.03 not getting caught — ahf not fab forum report: part two: my big picture

June 17th, 2006

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as i start to melt the notes down, after having just transcribed them all, here are my big-picture impressions:

the atmosphere of the forum was unusual in that not only did participants demonstrate an eagerness to speak; they also demonstrated an eagerness to listen. on all sides.

all of michael weinstein’s remarks are remarkable. his actions and his comments create the firm foundation of this discussion. he is aware of every single issue. when the hiv-not fab campaign was on a short list of three, way back when, it’s wasn’t his personal favorite. he agreed to it because he became convinced it was the most effective option he had to save lives. he said he “had to consider the opinion of the target audience: the 20-year-old next year.” an open-minded listener who changes his mind and is persuadable. “i could sit just back and take care of the wounded,” he said, noting that each new la area patient who signs on at ahf represents $20,000 income. “i don’t want ahf to be a co-conspirator with aids.” he also noted that the budget for this ad campaign was approximately 1% of the total ahf budget. [used to be, in pr and marketing and advertising, that 10% was more a figure to shoot for. can you imagine a prevention campaign funded on that scale?—rk]

there is no question that the world is a different and better place and people are alive today because of michael’s efforts. it is a meditation on the effects one person can avalanche or perpetrate on our society, a resounding counterpoint to the personal moral abdication that is everywhere else, from the top to the bottom. all the basic minimum competencies. all the basic minimum efforts.

comments fall into five categories (with overlap):

1. comments reflecting experiece & knowledge
2. comments addressing isues of trust/distrust
3. comments examining motives
4. comments from fixed positions
5. comments from open-minded positions

i think many people came to the forum expecting to settle the matter then and there. sort of a knee-jerk reaction from watching too many prime-time sitcoms and dramacoms and newscoms. and foxnewscoms. and marketsegmentcoms. and elections. enough.

i hope a lot of other people realized it was just the start of a dialog, the beginning of our work together.

i think it’s moral abdication NOT to consider the effects of a social marketing campaign on anyone else but your target market, as much as it is moral abdication NOT to consider the effects of a social marketing campaign on anyone else but yourself.

moral abdication is reflected in the following comments.

les pappas brought up a notion soaked with moral abdication for all concerned:

“person who is positive has the greatest [sic — s/b greater — rk] responsibility to protect others”

[as if someone uninfected was out there doing too much] [as if the uninfected, unlike the infected, are not ultimately responsible for their own actions] [slackers!] gotta stop.

here is another (les again):

when asked why ahf opted to use a fear campaign, which research shows doesn’t work, pappas responded: “i don’t consider it fear. i consider it reality,” intending to sidestep the question by trivializing the perception it contains. he stilll didn’t answer the question. it was really a situation where he needed to connect the dots — and still does — if he can. how is it, therefore, NOT fear? what is his response to the issue of using fear? sometimes, it’s appropriate when what you are doing is warning.

[reality is: nobody’s doing enough—laura garett, hiv as a national security issue, council on foreign relations report. so let’s sort all that blame stuff out later; there’s still more that everybody can do.]

one effect—fear—is located inside the person. the other threat—danger—is located in the envrionment. do you suppose there is weight to both points of view? if both aspects of it contain truth, what else might be true? what must be true in order for these things to be true?

and another abdicationary comment, this one from the audience:

“the biggest problem i have with this is all of the sudden it’s MY responsibility”

suddenly, the topic reveals a new facet of itself: not a fear-based campaign, but a guilt-based campaign.

the message becomes stigmatic when it is perceived to assign guilt without principle, whether that was what was consciously intended or not. it is arguably an unconscious attitude. unconscius embedded linguistic attitudes are political attitudes. the personal is political. every sexual act is a political act. each new hiv infection or aids death is a political event. every medical decision is a political decision. all this political stuff takes place in a cultural context.

as a body politic, we make no distinctions between psychological guilt and moral guilt. and we are avoiding considerations of psychological and moral and eventually legal culpability.

the following is from from wikipedia

In psychology
In psychology and ordinary language, guilt is an affective [emotional, as opposed to rational—rk] state in which one experiences conflict at having done something one believes one should not have done (or, conversely, not having done something one believes one should have done). It gives rise to a feeling that does not go away easily, driven by conscience. Freud described this as the result of a struggle between the ego and the superego (parental imprinting). Guilt and its causes, merits, and demerits is a common theme in psychology and psychiatry. It is often associated with depression.

In criminal law
In criminal law, sometimes in individual and religious moral codes, and more rarely in systems of ethics (either as philosophical questions directly, or in ethical codes and professions relying on them), guilt is the responsibility and blame for something bad that has happened. Judicial authorities consider it to be a concept similar to the economic concept of debt. [my bolding–rk]

[as a social phenomenon]
Some thinkers have theorized that guilt is used as a tool of social control. Since guilty people feel they are undeserving, they are less likely to assert their rights and prerogatives. Thus, those in power seek to cultivate a sense of guilt among the populace, in order to make them more tractable. [my emphaisi—rk] This was a theme in Eric Hoffer’s The True Believer. Ayn Rand claimed that Christian sexual morality served a similar purpose.

Cultural views of guilt
Traditional Japanese society and Ancient Greek society are sometimes said to be “shame-based” rather than “guilt-based” in that the social consequences of “getting caught” are seen as more important than the individual feelings or experiences of the agent. This may lead to more of a focus on etiquette than ethics as understood in Western civilization. [my bolding—rk]

Christianity and Islam inherit most notions of guilt from Judaism, Persian and Roman ideas, mostly as interpreted through Augustine who adapted Plato’s ideas to Christianity. The Latin word for guilt is culpa, a word sometimes seen in law literature, e.g. in “mea culpa”, “I take responsibility”. The Latin word for authority assumes a high degree of responsibility, the English word “province” being a close equivalent. [mt bolding–rk]

so, i really think it’s time to leave my thoughts there and solicit responses.

–lyr

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first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328)

please click on this sentence to veiw the entire wikipedia article on guilt.

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics

328.04 not getting caught — ahf not fab forum report: transcription of meeting notes

June 17th, 2006

Alex Simring aids-write.org mousetrap logo

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will set up anchor linking later. we begin with a summary of the dicussion, followed by the full text of the notes. please note: in the summaries of the panel members statements, i picked one major point each speaker made. everyone said more. when summary points became significant and clear, such as in bryan levinson’s statement, i summarized several points.

1. deya smith-starks, ahf prevention advocate and marketing manager

a. we care & want to save lives

2. karen mall, director of prevention and testing

a. more than half of all newly-positive hivers had been tested 4 or more times previously.conclusion? there was both a lot of knowlege and a lot of complacency out there.

3. gil mangaoang — spokesmodel hiv not fabulous campaign

a. talked about no longer being anonymous

4. me, and i didn’t take notes for that—read my position statement

a. rk note: best new aids movie: al gore, an inconvenient truth.

5. duane cramer, campaign photographer

a. talked about his father dying of aids

6. less pappas, president of petter world advertising

a. this campaign targeted hiv-negative people

7. my note, brought up later, my writing off reactions not in your target market

9. michael weinstein, ahf president and founder. read it all. too much to summarize.

10. first exchange: fear-based campaign

11. rk: note and response. “i’m sorry, you can’t just write of the responses of people who aren’t in your target market.” rk reads correspondence.

12. second exchange: “the biggest problem i have with this is all of the sudden it’s MY responsibility”

13. my note: churchill: never was there a war as easily preventable as ww2

14. richard eastman comments: these campaigns are working

15. third exchange: felt betrayed because ahf was putting prevention above healthcare

16. les’s response: “person who is positive has the greatest responsibility to protect others” we have a “mission to protect public health”

17. my note:

a. implies uninfected are doing too much.
b. implies hivers are not a part of the public.
c. 25% of gay community is hiv+.

18. michael weinsteins response

a. notion of wallpaper

19. fourth exchange: why is it stigmatizing?

20. rk note: friend who won’t work again if outed

21. rk note: south african supreme court judge edwin cameron came out because of murder of black woman who came out

22. hiv negative man—passionate response.

a. brother who died of aids
b. sister with aids

23. bryan levinson

a. this issue provoked the most response and discussion of any issue on the group site ever
b. it bridged a bap between [personal] social issues and political issues
c. he affirmed there was a connection between crystal and the spread of hiv
d. pegged the term “fabulous” as downfall of campaign
e. asked why, if the campaign was so successful, there weren’t more younger [saved] men there

24. pappas responded fabulous was a good choice. cited responses from younger guy saying “thank you. i didn’t know.”

25. pappas: just because there is a good process, it doesn’t follow that decisions will be good

26. weinstein in response: in many issues of treatment, follow the money

27. kearns takes exception: economic disincentive to come up with vaccine

28. my quoted correspondent stood up and identified himself and said his parents saw the ads

29. final comment from the audience: “you never heard anyone complaining this way about the beach ads?” yes and no afrom around the room

30. deya smith wraps up: story of man who said, “i’d rather cry than see another person die.”

summaryfinishes: full version below

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first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328)

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics
——————————————————————————

Alex Simring aids-write.org mousetrap logo

transcribed notes

deya—

opening remarks

deya smith-starks, ahf prevention advocate and marketing manager

we are here today because

1. we care
2. we want to save lives

she went on to say that ahf wants community involvement, wants community perspective.

karen mall, director of prevention and testing

jointly wrote campaign with les

studied people coming in with new infections.

more than half had been tested 4 or more times previously to the test which diagnosed them positive

conclusion? there was both a lot of knowlege and a lot of complacency out there. there was no fear involved with a new hiv diagnosis.

gil mangaoang, spokesmodel hiv not fabulous campaign

he was hesitant at first because it meant he could no longer be anonymous

treatment counselor

reduced pill burden

3rd pill course [third cocktail]

me, and i didn’t take notes for that

important new addition

best film on aids epidemic
al gore an inconvenient truth

remember what i said

cut and paste what i read

duane cramer, campaign photographer

father died of aids

remembers him dying

was inspired by campaign using real people affected/affllicted with virus

[bridge—as opposed to buffed beacboys]

neither is complete picture

rk note

article in washington post

john andriote

20 years on aids beat

then he got it

less pappas

president of petter world advertising

17 years

know controversy

want dialog

“not an ad agency”

comments about process

long process

lot of positive and negative people involved

this campaign targeted hiv negative people

my comment note, brought up later, *******

i’m sorry, the ad campaign affects everyone. you can’t just write off the reactions of persons not in your target group

didn’t live through eighties

how do you reach people

king—inescapable net

reported the response of his target audience [showed the campaign was effective] i ad no idea i thought this was over

michael weinstein, ahf president and founder

ahf has 30,000 clients worldwide [later found out 6,000 la area]

said he was presented [with a short list] of three campaigns and this wasnt the one he had picked

but had to consider the opinion of the target audience: 20-year-old next year

the discussions at ahf were divided along age lnes

remembers the most controversial in 96

ahf said “hiv is treatable”

outrage. became

“hiv is treatable”

then you die.

reality is ahf gets bigger as more people get infected

he doesn’t want to be a co-conspirator with hiv

he sees ahfs primary obligation as a protector of public health

we used to be at a moment in time where safer sex became the norm for men with hiv

but we’ve lost that

we have to figure out how to reestablish that as a norm.

in social marketing, the first requirement is that “it not be wallpaper”

we have to use controversy

we have to stir people up

we’ve had 30 years of wallpaper

ads competing with circuit party ads

their aim is to tell pepple the truth

when ads are wallpaper

we’e not telling the truth

their aim should be to tell the truth

we have been telling the truth

visual message is not where it needs to be 9think in reference to buff beach guy ads0

culture of self-destruction

organized around

• crystal
• circuit
• unsafe sex

story about fundraiser selling white party tickets

bottom lline: it’s ahf’s commitment to shield and protect the best way we can

rights

social institution

social opportunity

we are less of a community “our brother’s keeper” today than we were 30 years ago.

only the gay community itself can tackle the issue of prevention

question

research that guided fear-based campaign

pappas:

don’t consider it fear
consider it reality

read the following note in response to les

the hiv not fab campaign was not easy for me to see sinve i’m still i the early years of my hiv life (i’m 25 and 2.5 years with hiv) it was a rather disappointing sight to see. to think that this is how the world sees me . . . or at least how the leaders of this campaign would like to world to believe. i talked to my other half about it. he is a double-digit year survivor, lived through the many years of the virus in san fran, and a buddhist . . . to say the least, i do look to him for guidance. the only thing he said about it was that he was no more offended lby this ampaign than he waqs with ads for cocktail drugs showingbeautifully tanned and buffed guys climbinb mountais. i guess it’s just a matter of perspective. i would simply prefer that my family never sees one of those ads . . . i know they would not have stoppedmy from using drugs and contracting the virus just because i wasn’t willing to let anything getin the way of my using.

peter

6 years

conflating crystal & hiv

brokencondom

“the biggest problem i have with this is all of the sudden it’s MY responsibility”

“culture of blamd”

before my fangs grow geting read to infect generations of yourn chickins [being portrayed as]

[wants message that’s]

affirmative

empowering

easy disease not to get

MLY NOTE

churchill

easies war to prevent

richard eastman

johnson & jhnson

band aid company

treatment = life

these campaigns are working

alex

ahf client

objects to ahf presented as science & CUTING EDGE

MIXED MESSAGE

STIGMATIZED CLIENT

FELT BETRAYED BY ORGANIZATIONS PROviging him care

putting prevention above healthcare

“person who ispositive has the greatest responsibility to protect others (les)

mission to protect public health

my note: implies hivers are not part of the public

25% of gay community

q: why is it stigmatising?

seropis chemotherapy with side effects

unwilling to say “stay negative”

bland message doesn’t differentiate

henry

hiv negative man

passionate

brother died of aids

sister with aids

bryan levinson

sin in 25 cities worldwide now

we are a social group—not a forum for political issues

this issue provoked the most response of any issue on the group site

it bridged a gap between political issues & issues in our lives

connection with crystal meth and aids

“hiv is not a picnic” last controversial ad campaign

core of the problem with the ad campaign was the use of the term “fabulous”

asked if the marketing campaign was so successful, why weren’t there more [saved] younger men here

les pappas directed comments at the term “fabulous” and how it worked. refered to responses in members of target market.

i’m sorry, the ad campaign affects everyone. you can’t just write off the reactions of persons not in your target group

stigma is a horror. new infection is a horror. they are the same horror.

didn’t live through eighties

how do you reach people

king—inescapable net

michael weinsteins comments

moment you begin discussion about responsibility, you get trashed.

this is a dangerous situation. ahf could just stand by and deal with the wounded

from a physical and psycholigical viewpoint

we can’t just stand by

in los angeles, every time we get a new client is means $20,000 income to ahf

this ad campaign is only 1% of ahf’s budget.

stigmatizing by not telling the truth yes and no

deya: work in progress.

we’re in the process of trying to save lives

we hope to get better at it

pappas

just because there is a good process, it doesn’t follow that decisions will be good

weinstein—follow the money

take exception

from a recent comment posted on americaBLOG discussing big pharma:

my name is Alex Simring. i have aids. i am an aids activist.
here are three media items about the activities of big pharma that i think should be included in this discussion.

#1 laurie garnett writes in the july 2005 council on foreign relations report on hiv and national security:

clearly, the entire question of national security and hiv/aids would be moot were there an effective, affordable vaccine available. investment in basic vaccine related research and development ought to be a critical priority. similarly, were prevention campaigns aggressively funded and executed the world over, the security dimensions of the pandemic would obviously be softened. No aspect of hiv-prevention has received adequate attention on the global stage. . . . the entire debate over hiv links to security would be rendered moot were the world engaged in an effective campaign to stop further spread of the virus. sadly, it is not.

#2 frank greeve wrote in the may 22, 2006 charlotte, nc observer:
“the basic problem is that vaccines, which typically offer long-term immunity from one battery of shots, aren’t nearly as profitable as drugs that are taken daily. pfizer’s cholesterol-lowering lipitor, for example, with $10 billion in global sales, grosses more than all the world’s vaccines combined.”

#3 paul a. offit wrote in health affairs, vol 24, issue 3, 622-630 © 2005
“during the past fifty years, the number of pharmaceutical companies making vaccines has decreased dramatically, and those that still make vaccines have reduced resources to make new ones. pharmaceutical companies are gradually abandoning vaccines because the research, development, testing, and manufacture of vaccines are expensive and because the market to sell vaccines is much smaller than the market for other drug products. congressional action could assure both a steady supply of existing vaccines and the promise of vaccines for the future.”

even better, as far as profit is concerned: suddenly, we’re not just taking one medicine, we’re taking cocktails–one of everybody’s. what could be more chummy?
–rk

one person in the audience comented: nobody objecgted to the beach ads hoots yes and no

“i’d rather cry than see another person die”

deya

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first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328)

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics

328.05 not getting caught — ahf not fab forum report: an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics.

June 17th, 2006

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wiktionary logo

chers–will format later

1. abdicate
2. accountability
3. amoral
4. beholden
5. blame
6. bound
7. conscience (iii)
8. culpable
9. dishonest
10. ethics (ii)
11. fault
12. guilt (i)
13. honest
14. honor
15. immoral
16. indebted
17. integrity
18. irrelevant
19. moral
20. obligation
21. rectitude
22. relevant
23. responsibility
24. right
25. shame (i)
26. stigma (i), (iv)
27. wrong

(i) wikipedia text also
(ii) link to wikipedia text
(iii) richard mitchell on conscience
(iv) rk defines stigma

rk recommends this definition of stigma (for the purpose of this discussion), from my big picture:
stigmatize, stigma, : [v,n] to assign / perceived guilt assign[ed] / without principle, whether that was what was consciously intended or not. it is arguably an unconscious attitude. unconscius embedded linguistic attitudes are political attitudes. the personal is political. every sexual act is a political act. each new hiv infection or aids death is a political event. every medical decision is a political decision. all this political stuff takes place in a cultural context.

abdicate

Etymology
From Latin abdicatus, past participle of abdicare, formed from ab- + dicare “to proclaim”, akin to dicere to say.
Verb
to abdicate (third-person singular simple present abdicates, present participle abdicating, simple past abdicated, past participle abdicated)
1. (transitive) To surrender, renounce or relinquish, as sovereign power; to withdraw definitely from filling or exercising, as a high office, station, dignity; as, to abdicate the throne, the crown, the papacy.
Note: The word abdicate was held to mean, in the case of James II, to abandon without a formal surrender.
o The cross-bearers abdicated their service. - Gibbon
o He abdicates all right to be his own governor. - Edmund Burke
o The understanding abdicates its functions. - Froude
2. (transitive) (obsolete) To reject; to cast off. - Bp. Hall
3. (transitive) (law) To disclaim and expel from the family, as a father his child; to disown; to disinherit.
4. (intransitive) To relinquish or renounce a throne, or other high office or dignity; to renounce sovereignty.
o Though a king may abdicate for his own person, he cannot abdicate for the monarchy. - w:Edmund Burke
Synonyms
• give up
• quit
• vacate
• relinquish
• forsake
• abandon
• resign
• renounce
• desert
Derived terms
• abdicable
• abdicant
• abdicator
Related terms
• abdication
Translations
to surrender or relinquish

accountability

Noun
1. The state of being accountable; liability to be called on to render an account; accountableness
Quotations
o The awful idea of accountability - R. Hall

amoral

Adjective
1. (of acts) being neither moral nor immoral
1. (of people) not believing in or caring for morality and immorality

beholden

Adjective
beholden
1. Obligated to provide, display, or do something for another; bound by moral obligation; indebted; obliged.

blame

Noun
blame (uncountable)
1. The state of having caused a bad event.
The blame for starting the fire lays on the arsonist.
Verb
to blame (third-person singular simple present blames, present participle blaming, simple past blamed, past participle blamed)
1. To assert that something or someone caused a bad event; to place blame upon.
The arsonist was blamed for the fire.

bound

Etymology 1
Verb
bound
1. Past tense of to bind.
I bound the splint to my leg.
2. Past participle of to bind.
I had bound the splint with duct tape.
Etymology 2
Noun

Singular
bound

Plural
bounds
1. (often used in plural) The border of a territory, which one must cross in order to enter or leave the territory.
I reached the northern bound of my property, took a deep breath, and walked on.
Somewhere within these bounds you may find a buried treasure.
2. (mathematics) a value which is known to be greater or smaller than a given set of values
Derived terms
• boundary
• least upper bound
• lower bound
• out of bounds
• upper bound
• within bounds
Verb
to bound
1. To surround a territory.
Nebraska, Missouri, Oklahoma and Colorado bound Kansas.
• Usage notes: Tends to be used in passive voice, as Kansas is bounded by Nebraska on the north, Missouri on the east ….
Derived terms
• unbounded
• boundless
Etymology 3

Noun
1. A sizeable jump.
The deer crossed the stream in a single bound.
Verb
1. To move by jumping.
The rabbit bounded down the lane.
Derived terms
• rebound
Etymology 4
Adverb
bound
1. Directed towards.
Is that message bound for me?
Which way are you bound?
2. (with infinitive of a verb) Indicates something which cannot be avoided.
The leaking fuel tank was bound to explode sooner or later.
Derived terms
• bound for
• eastbound
• northbound
• southbound
• westbound
Related Terms
• bound in
• bound to
• bound state
• bound up
• hardbound
• leaps and bounds
• meets and bounds
• softbound
• inbound

conscience

Etymology
Latin conscientia ‘knowledge within oneself’, from scire ‘to know’.

Noun
conscience
1. A person’s moral sense of right and wrong, chiefly as it affects their own behaviour.

rk—usage
“Conscience is a high wall of scrawled graffiti where the world can write what it pleases, a random anthology of pet notions, unexamined sentiments, and popular slogans remarkable chiefly for their vagueness. Conscience stands always in need of editing, a job that can’t be done except through thoughtful reading of the scrawls. “
richard mitchell
the underground grammarian
”hunger in america”
to edit: to revise thoughtfully; part of the recursive process of composing. –rk
http://www.radiofreemike.com/hunger.html

culpable

rk’s etymology
mea culpa latin my fault
Adjective
culpable
1. meriting condemnation, censure or blame, especially as something wrong, harmful or injurious; blameworthy
Derived terms
• culpability
• culpably
• culpable negligence
Noun
culpability
1. The degree of one’s blameworthiness in the commission of a crime or offence.

dishonest

Etymology
dis- + honest
Adjective
dishonest (comparative more dishonest, superlative most dishonest)
1. not honest
2. interfering with honesty

ethics

Noun
ethics
1. the philosophy of morality
2. the standards that govern the conduct of a person; especially a member of a profession
Synonyms
• moral philosophy
Derived terms
• bioethics
• metaethics
• situation ethics

Wikipedia has an article on:
Ethics

fault
Noun
1. A defect; something that detracts from perfection
2. A mistake or error
3. A weakness of character
4. A minor offense
5. Blame; the responsibility for a mistake
6. (Geology) A fracture in a rock formation causing a discontinuity
7. (Tennis) An illegal serve
Verb
to fault (third-person singular simple present faults, present participle faulting, simple past faulted, past participle faulted)
1. (transitive): To criticize, blame or find fault with something or someone.
2. (intransitive, Geology): To fracture.
3. (intransitive): To commit a mistake or error.

guilt

Etymology
Old English gylt
Noun
guilt (uncountable)
1. Responsibility for wrongdoing.
Antonyms
• innocence
Derived terms
• guilty

wikipedia entry
the following is from from wikipedia
In psychology
In psychology and ordinary language, guilt is an affective state in which one experiences conflict at having done something one believes one should not have done (or, conversely, not having done something one believes one should have done). It gives rise to a feeling that does not go away easily, driven by conscience. Freud described this as the result of a struggle between the ego and the superego (parental imprinting). Guilt and its causes, merits, and demerits is a common theme in psychology and psychiatry. It is often associated with depression.
In criminal law
In criminal law, sometimes in individual and religious moral codes, and more rarely in systems of ethics (either as a philosophical questions directly, or in ethical codes and professions relying on them), guilt is the responsibility and blame for something bad that has happened. Judicial authorities consider it to be a concept similar to the economic concept of debt.
as a social phenomenon
Some thinkers have theorized that guilt is used as a tool of social control. Since guilty people feel they are undeserving, they are less likely to assert their rights and prerogatives. Thus, those in power seek to cultivate a sense of guilt among the populace, in order to make them more tractable. [my emphaisi—rk] This was a theme in Eric Hoffer’s The True Believer. Ayn Rand claimed that Christian sexual morality served a similar purpose.
Cultural views of guilt
Traditional Japanese society and Ancient Greek society are sometimes said to be “shame-based” rather than “guilt-based” in that the social consequences of “getting caught” are seen as more important than the individual feelings or experiences of the agent. This may lead to more of a focus on etiquette than ethics as understood in Western civilization. This leads some to question why then we would adapt the word ethos from Ancient Greek when their norms are so different from ours. A meta-wikipedia article asks this.
Christianity and Islam inherit most notions of guilt from Judaism, Persian and Roman ideas, mostly as interpreted through Augustine who adapted Plato’s ideas to Christianity. The Latin word for guilt is culpa, a word sometimes seen in law literature, e.g. in “mea culpa”, “I take responsibility”. The Latin word for authority assumes a high degree of responsibility, the English word “province” being a close equivalent.

honest

Adjective
honest (comparative more honest, superlative most honest)
1. (of a person or institution) Scrupulous with regard to telling the truth; not given to swindling, lying, or fraud
Has the president been honest with us?
2. (of a statement) true, esp. true as far as the knowledge of the person making the statement.
3. in good faith; without malice (an honest mistake)
4. fair; unbiased (an honest account of events)
5. (of measurement devices) accurate (an honest scale)
6. veritable; full (an honest day’s work)

honor

Noun
honor (plural: honors)
1. An objectification of praiseworthiness, respect. (I.e. something that represents praiseworthiness, respect.)
Noun
honor, m.
Honor.
Declension
Third declension. +3
case \ # M. MM.
Nominative honos honōrēs
Genitive honōris honōrum
Dative honōrī honōribus
Accusative honōrem honōrēs
Ablative honōre honōribus

immoral

1. Not moral; inconsistent with rectitude, purity, or good morals; contrary to conscience or the divine law; wicked; unjust; dishonest; vicious; licentious; as, an immoral man; an immoral deed.

indebted

Adjective
indebted
1. obligated to someone; owing a debt of gratitude to someone
Synonyms
• beholden
• obliged
Usage notes
• this does not refer to a financial debt

integrity

Etymology
Latin integritas
Noun
integrity
1. Adhering to a strict ethical code
2. The state of being wholesome; unimpaired
3. The quality or condition of being complete; pure
Synonyms
• honesty
• uprightness
• rectitude
• unity
• wholeness
• purity
• goodness
• probity
• sincerity
• virtue
• decency

irrelevant

1. not related, not applicable, unimportant, not connected

moral

Adjective
moral (comparative more moral, superlative most moral)
1. of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior, especially for teaching right behavior
moral judgments, a moral poem
2. conforming to a standard of right behavior; sanctioned by or operative on one’s conscience or ethical judgment
a moral obligation
3. capable of right and wrong action
a moral agent
4. probable but not proved
a moral certainty
5. positively affecting the mind, confidence or will
a moral victory, moral support
Synonyms
• (conforming to a standard of right behavior): ethical, virtuous, righteous, noble
• (provable but not proved): virtual
Translations
relating to principles of right and wrong
conforming to a standard of right behavior
capable of right and wrong action
probable but not proved
positively affecting the mind, confidence or will
Noun
moral (plural morals)
1. the moral significance or practical lesson (the moral of a story)
2. moral practices or teachings: modes of conduct
Synonyms
• (moral practices or teachings): ethics

obligation

Noun
obligation (plural obligations)
1. The act of binding oneself by a social, legal, or moral tie to someone
2. A social, legal, or moral requirement duty, contract, or promise that compels someone to follow or avoid a particular course of action
3. A course of action imposed by society, law, or conscience by which someone is bound or restricted
4. (law) A legal agreement stipulating a specified payment or action; the document containing such agreement
Related terms
• obligate
• obligated
• obligation
• obligational
• obligato
• obligatorily
• oblige
• obligee
• obliger
• obliging
• obligingly
• obligingness
• obligor
Etymology
From Old (and mdoern) French obliger, from Latin obligare, from ob- + ligare ‘bind’.
Verb
1. To constrain someone by force or by social, moral or legal means
o I am obliged to report to the police station every week
2. To do someone a service or favour
o He obliged me by not parking his car in the drive
to oblige (intransitive)
1. To be indebted to someone
o I am obliged to you for your recent help
2. To do a service or favour
o The singer obliged with another song

rectitude

Etymology
From Middle English, old french, late latin (rectitudo) and beginning from latin (rectus-straight)
Noun
1. Honor
2. Moral righteousness
• For examples of the use of this word see: citations.

relevant

Etymology
16th Century, from Medieval Latin relevans, from Latin relevāre, from re + lentāre to raise, relieve.

Adjective
1. applicable, pertinent, significant, directly related and connected to the subject,

responsibility

Noun
responsibility (plural responsibilities)
1. The act of being responsible.
Responsibility is a heavy burden.
2. A duty or obligation for which someone is responsible.
Keeping this system under control is everyone’s responsibility.
3. A liability that you must take care of.
Why didn’t you clean the house? That was your responsibility!

right

Etymology 1
From Middle English right (the “right” hand, direction) < Old English riht (the "proper" hand) < Proto-Germanic *rekhtaz < Proto-Indo-European base *reg- (to move in a straight line, to rule, lead straight, put right).
Etymology 2
From Middle English right (morally correct) < Old English riht (just, just claim, good, fair, proper, straight) < Proto-Germanic *rekhtaz < Proto-Indo-European base *reg- (to move in a straight line, to rule, lead straight, put right).
Etymology 3
From Middle English right (to straighten, to set upright, to correct) < Old English rihtan (to straighten, judge, set upright, set right) < Old English riht (just, just claim, good, fair, proper, straight) < Proto-Germanic *rekhtaz < Proto-Indo-European base *reg- (to move in a straight line, to rule, lead straight, put right).
Adjective
right
1. Arbitrary convention to call one direction, one side, as opposed to left. This arrow points to the right: →
2. straight
3. correct, just
4. perpendicular, forming a 90-degree angle
5. (Politics) conservative
Synonyms
• correct, just (2)
• conservative, right-wing (5)
• starboard (1)
Antonyms
• left (1, 5), bowed (2), crooked (2), curved (2), wrong (3)

shame

Etymology
Old English scamu
Noun
shame (uncountable)
1. Uncomfortable or painful feeling due to recognition or consiousness of having done something improper, dishonorable or otherwise wrong in the opinion of the person experiencing the feeling. It is caused by awareness of exposure of circumstances of unworthiness or of improper or indecent conduct.
When I realized that I had hurt my friend, I felt deep shame.
2. Something to regret.
It was a shame not to see the show after driving all that way.
“And what you do to me is a shame.” - Evelyn “Champagne” King, in the song Shame.
Usage
While shame is not generally counted, it is countable, for example
I felt two shames: one for hurting my friend, and a greater one for lying about it.
While shame has a strong social element and can carry fear of being shut out of society, it is also possible to feel private shame at violating ones own private standards.
Etymology
Old English scamian
Verb
to shame (third-person singular simple present shames, present participle shaming, simple past shamed, past participle shamed)
1. To cause to feel shame.
I was shamed by the teacher’s public disapproval.

wikipedia entry on shame
Shame is a psychological condition and a form of religious, political, judicial, and social control consisting of ideas, emotional states, physiological states and a set of behaviors, induced by the consciousness or awareness of dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation. Genuine shame is associated with genuine dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation. False shame is associated with false condemnation as in the double-bind form of false shaming; “he brought what we did to him upon himself”. Therapist John Bradshaw calls shame the “emotion that lets us know we are finite”.
Being shamed
To shame is to induce shame in others by attacking or destroying the personal dignity of a person or a group. Shame can be induced verbally by ridicule, name-calling or publically exposing a person’s or a groups vulnerability or weakness; and physically by assault, rape, and beating. Shaming actions attack and diminish the human dignity of a person or group and separates them from the human family.
When someone says “You ought to be ashamed of yourself”, they often mean that the target did something that they believe, rightly or wrongly, to be shameful. Sometimes shortened to “Shame on you.” this form of shaming shames the target as a human being, rather than the deed itself.
Shaming attacks human dignity. Since shame is a complicated and often taboo condition, people often confuse shame with guilt (see guilt and explanations below) when they shame others. In addition, for those who care about human dignity, it is always important to separate false condemnation from genuine guilt as specious shame is often used as form of relational aggression against innocent people.
Self shame
It is also possible to self-shame with genuine or false forms of self-condemnation. In one graphic form, the Canadian film Black Robe shows a Catholic priest who flagellates himself for having forbidden desires. Another form of self-shaming occurs in people who connect their internal self-worth with external conditions as in “I lost, therefore, I am a loser.”, ‘He rejected me, therefore, I am no good.’, or “We were hit by a tidal wave, therefore, we were wrong”. Because self-shame often depends on internalized ideologies of shamed vs shameless self-hood, it is often a powerful but covert form of religious, legal, or social control that begins in childhood.
Self-shaming can be internalized as an identity following abuse. A person can feel their dignity has been permanently lost, either by being a member of a group that is socially stigmatized or by experiencing abuse or ridicule. Children are especially vulnerable to formation of a self-shaming identity during their development.
Shame vs. guilt
There is no standard distinction between shame and guilt. [my emphasis—rk] The cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict describes shame as a violation of cultural or social values while feelings of guilt arise from violations of internal values. It is possible to feel ashamed of thought or behavior that no one knows about as well as feeling guilty about actions that gain the approval of others. However, In Facing Shame, therapists Fossum and Mason state “While guilt is a painful feeling of regret and responsibility for one’s actions, shame is a painful feeling about oneself as a person.” Shame is needed to establish limits, in childhood, since young children are unable to associate cause and effect by themselves. However, as children become better able to judge their own actions, guilt becomes the conscience former. Although, in general, guilt guides adult consciences, intrinsic shame is often present in adults too, as shaming is a form of religious, political, and/or legal control in cultures worldwide.
Shame vs. embarrassment
Shame differs from embarrassment in that it does not necessarily involve public humiliation: one can feel shame for an act known only to oneself, but in order to be embarrassed, one’s actions must be revealed to others. Also, shame carries the connotation of a response to qualities that are considered morally wrong, whereas one can be embarrassed regarding actions that are morally neutral but socially unacceptable (such as an accident). Another view of the difference between shame and embarrassment is that the two emotions lie on a continuum and only differ in intensity. The wish to sink into the ground and disappear from view, to hide oneself from eyes that witness one’s embarrassment or humiliation is common to both.
Toxic shame
Psychologists often use the term ‘toxic’ shame to describe false, and therefore, pathological shame. Therapist John Bradshaw states that toxic shame is induced, inside children, by all forms of child abuse. Incest and other forms of child sexual abuse can cause particulary severe toxic shame. Toxic shame often induces what is known as complex trauma in children who cannot cope with toxic shaming as it occurs and who dissociate the shame until it is possible to cope with.
Shame (and shaming) is often associated with torture (see the psychology of torture). It is also a central feature of punishment, shunning, or ostracism. In addiction, shame is often seen in victims of child neglect, child abuse and a host of other crimes against children. Parental incest is considered the ultimate form of shaming by child psychologists.
Religious shame
Shame is a key (if controversial) theme in religion. Religions that claim only God or other spiritual beings are perfect in that sense impute a certain kind of shame on human beings. In many cases, that shame is associated with sexuality and other carnal characteristics of human beings, though others would argue that only sinful expressions of those characterstics should be shameful.
Religious faith can create the basis for shame because shame reflects internalized ideas as to what is right and proper and about what is wrong and improper. This means that torture tactics intended to shame religious adherents might merely titillate other people (e.g., nudity). Conversely, religions may associate honor with certain behaviors (e.g, martyrdom in Christianity, veils in Islam) that others consider shameful. The ideas and the strength with which religious (and other) ideas are held seems to influence whether shame occurs and how much shame occurs in a subject.
Vicarious shame
Psychologists recently introduced the notion of vicarious shame, which refers to the experience of shame on behalf of another person. Individuals vary in their tendency to experience vicarious shame, which is related to neuroticism and to the tendency to experience personal shame. Extremely shame-prone people might even experience vicarious vicarious shame: shame on behalf of another person who is already feeling shame on behalf of a third party (or possibly on behalf of the individual proper).
Shame in society
Shame also generally considered one pillar of socialization in all societies.
Shame is enshrouded in legal precedent as a pillar of punishment and ostensible correction.
Shame has been linked to narcissism in the psychoanalytic literature. It is one of the most intense emotions. The individual experiencing shame may feel totally despicable, worthless and feel that there is no redemption.
According to the anthropologist Ruth Benedict, cultures may be classified by their emphasis of using either shame or guilt to regulate the social activities of their members. Some Asian cultures, for example China and Japan, are considered shame cultures. European and modern American cultures, as for example the United States, are considered guilt cultures. For example, traditional Japanese and Ancient Greek society are sometimes said to be “shame-based” rather than “guilt-based” in that the social consequences of “getting caught” are seen as more important than the individual feelings or experiences of the agent.
Shared opinions and expected behaviours that cause the feeling of shame (as well as an associated reproval) if violated by an individual are in any case proven to be very efficient in guiding behaviour in a group or society.
Shame is the favorite form of control used by those people who commit relational aggression, also known (incorrectly) as female bullying. It is a potent weapon in marriage, family, and church settings. It is also used in the workplace as a form of covert social control or aggression.

stigma

rk on stigma, my big picture:

stigmatize, stigma, : [v,n] to assign / perceived guilt assign[ed] / without principle, whether that was what was consciously intended. it is arguably an unconscious attitude. unconscius embedded linguistic attitudes are political attitudes. the personal is political. every sexual act is a political act. each new hiv infection or aids death is a political event. every medical decision is a political decision. all this political stuff takes place in a cultural context.

noun (plural: stigmata or stigmas)
1. A mark of infamy or disgrace.
2. A scar or birthmark.
3. (botany) That part of the pistil of a flower that receives pollen during fertilization.
wikipedia
The word stigma (Greek στíγμα: “mark” or “spot”; plural: stigmata, στíγματα) has several meanings. The term originated in reference to what these bodily signs (burnt or cut into the flesh by the master of as punishment) signified that the marked person was a slave, a criminal, or traitor; someone of flawed moral status to be avoided, especially in public.
In later Christian times it came to have two extra layers of metaphor, namely the bodily signs of holy grace (eruptive blossoms on the skin); and the medical reference to this religious marking as signs of physical disorder, see Stigmata (plural form) for more.
Other uses:
• Social stigma, a “mark of infamy or disgrace; sign of moral blemish; stain or reproach caused by dishonorable conduct; reproachful characterization” (Webster, 1913).
• Stigma (anatomy), a small spot, mark, scar, or a minute hole; applied especially to a spot on the outer surface of a Graafian follicle, and to spots of intercellular substance in scaly epithelium, or to minute holes in such spots.
• Stigma (pathology), a red speck upon the skin, produced either by the extravasation of blood, as in the bloody sweat characteristic of certain varieties of religious ecstasy, or by capillary congestion, as in the case of drunkards.
• Stigma (geometry), a point so connected by any law whatever with another point, called an index, that as the index moves in any manner in a plane the first point or stigma moves in a determinate way in the same plane.
• A mark such as that made with a branding iron on cattle or a person

wrong

Adjective
wrong
1. Incorrect or untrue.
Some of your answers were correct, and some were wrong.
o 1592: William Shakespeare, Richard III; Act II, Scene I, line 54. — Among this princely heap, if any here By false intelligence or wrong surmise Hold me a foe…
2. Immoral, not good, bad.
It is wrong to lie.
3. Improper; unfit; unsuitable.
A bikini is the wrong thing to wear on a cold day.
4. Not working; out of order.
Something is wrong with my cellphone.
5. Designed to be worn or placed inward; as, the wrong side of a garment or of a piece of cloth; injurious; unjust; faulty; detrimental; unfit; unsuitable.
Translations
incorrect
Adverb
wrong
1. In a way that isn’t right; done incorrectly; wrongfully.
I spelled several names wrong in my address book.
Noun
wrong (plural: wrongs)
1. Something that is immoral or not good.
Injustice is a heinous wrong.
2. The incorrect or unjust position or opinion. (Or is it the wronged?)
o 1592: William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part III, Act IV, Scene I, line 101. — I blame not her: she could say little less; She had the wrong.
3. The opposite of right; something which is wrong, particularly injustice.
o 1607: William Shakespeare, Timon of Athens, Act IV, Scene III, line 28. — Thus much of this will make Black white, foul fair, wrong right, Base noble, old young, coward valiant.
Verb
to wrong (wrongs, wronged, wronging)
1. To treat unjustly; to injure or harm.
The dealer wronged us by selling us this lemon of a car.
o 1591: William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part I, Act II, Scene IV, line 109. — Thou dost then wrong me, as that slaughterer doth Which giveth many wounds when one will kill.
2. To deprive of some right, or to withhold some act of justice.
o 1597: William Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part II, Act IV, Scene I, line 121. — … And might by no suit gain our audience. When we are wrong’d and would unfold our griefs, We are denied access unto his person Even by those men that most have done us wrong.
3. To slander; to impute evil to unjustly.
o 1598: William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene II, line 121. — O masters! if I were dispos’d to stir Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage, I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, Who (you all know) are honorable men. I will not do them wrong; I rather choose To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, Than I will wrong such honorable men.

Alex Simring aids-write.org shite: definition

Alex Simring aids-write.org mousetrap logo

first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328)

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics

328.06 not getting caught — ahf not fab forum report: wikipedia entry on ethics

June 17th, 2006

Alex Simring aids-write.org mousetrap logo

Alex Simring aids-write.org shite: definition

wikipedia logo

wikipedia on ethics

chers–will come back and format this later. –lyr
Ethics (from Greek ἦθος meaning “custom”) is the branch of axiology, one of the four major branches of philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to distinguish that which is right from that which is wrong. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. Ethics in plain words means studying and analyzing right from wrong; good from bad.

Meta-ethics

Meta-ethics is the investigation of the nature of ethical statements. It involves such questions as: Are ethical claims truth-apt, i.e., capable of being true or false, or are they, for example, expressions of emotion (see cognitivism and non-cognitivism)? If they are truth-apt, are they ever true? If they are ever true, what is the nature of the facts that they express? And are they ever true absolutely (see moral absolutism), or always only relative to some individual, society, or culture? (See moral relativism, cultural relativism.)

Meta-ethics studies the nature of ethical sentences and attitudes. This includes such questions as what “good” and “right” mean, whether and how we know what is right and good, whether moral values are objective, and how ethical attitudes motivate us. Often this is derived from some list of moral absolutes, e.g. a religious moral code, whether explicit or not. Some would view aesthetics as itself a form of meta-ethics. Some philosophers, such as Kierkegaard viewed meta-ethics as a pursuit that could only be understood in terms of religion. His Christian derived ethics is seen most clearly in the concept of a ‘teleological suspension of the ethical’ - a moment when ethical reality is superseded by religious reality, such as Abraham’s sacrifice of his son Isaac on Mt. Moriah and its prefiguration of God the father’s sacrifice of Christ. Organized religion may be seen as an extension of moral philosophy that seeks a system of thought that transcends accepted ethical norms of a particular time.

Meta-ethics also investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what they mean. Are they merely social inventions? Do they involve more than expressions of our individual emotions? Meta-ethical answers to these questions focus on the issues of universal truths, the will of God, the role of reason in ethical judgments, and the meaning of ethical terms themselves.

Normative ethics

Normative ethics bridges the gap between meta-ethics and applied ethics. It is the attempt to arrive at practical moral standards that tell us right from wrong, and how to live moral lives. This may involve articulating the good habits that we should acquire, the duties that we should follow, or the consequences of our behavior on others.

• One branch of normative ethics is theory of conduct; this is the study of right and wrong, of obligation and permissions, of duty, of what is above and beyond the call of duty, and of what is so wrong as to be evil. Theories of conduct propose standards of morality, or moral codes or rules. For example, the following would be the sort of rules that a theory of conduct would discuss (though different theories will differ on the merit of each of these particular rules): “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”; “The right action is the action which produces the greatest happiness for the greatest number”; “Stealing is wrong”. Theories of moral conduct can be distinguished from etiquette by their concern with finding guidelines for action that are not dependent entirely on social convention. For example, it may not be a breach of etiquette to fail to give money to help those in poverty, but it could still be a failure to act morally.

• Another branch of normative ethics is theory of value; this looks at what things are deemed to be valuable. Suppose we have decided that certain things are intrinsically good, or are more valuable than other things that are also intrinsically good. Given this, the next big question is what would this imply about how we should live our lives? The theory of value also asks: What sorts of things are good? What sorts of situations are good? Is pleasure always good? Is it good for people to be equally well-off? Is it intrinsically good for beautiful objects to exist? Or: What does “good” mean? It may literally define “good” and “bad” for a community or society. [Criticism: Theory of value is not a part of normative ethics, though normative ethics presupposes some theory of value. For example, there are aesthetic values which may be amoral, i.e., neutral in regard to conduct.]

Applied ethics
Opposing forms

One form of applied ethics applies normative ethical theories to specific controversial issues. In these cases, the ethicist adopts a defensible theoretical framework, and then derives normative advice by applying the theory. However, many persons and situations, notably traditional religionists and lawyers, find this approach either against accepted religious doctrine or impractical because it does not conform to existing laws and court decisions.

Casuistry is a completely different form of applied ethics that is widely used in these cases and by these groups. Casuists compare moral dilemmas to well established cases (sometimes called paradigms). The well-established methods for coping with the well-established cases are then adapted to the case at hand.

The special virtue of casuistry over applied moral theory is that groups and individuals often disagree about theories, but may nonetheless have remarkably similar paradigms. Thus, they may be able to achieve substantial social agreement about actions, even though their theories are incompatible. This may be why casuistry is the foundation of many legal systems. Causistry is essentially based on applying paradigms to individual cases on their own merits.

Specific questions

The ethical problems attacked by applied ethicists (of whatever sort) often bear directly on public policy. For example, the following would be questions of applied ethics: “Is getting an abortion ever moral?”; “Is euthanasia ever moral?”; “What are the ethical underpinnings of affirmative action policies?”; “What are human rights, and how do we determine them?”; “Do animals have rights?”

A more specific question could be: “If someone else can make better out of his/her life than I can, is it then moral to sacrifice myself if needed?”

Without these questions there is no clear fulcrum on which to balance law, politics, and practice of arbitration – in fact no common assumptions of all participants – so the ability to formulate the questions are prior to rights balancing.

But not all questions studied in applied ethics concern public policy. For example: Is lying always wrong? If not, when is it permissible? The ability to make these ethical judgments is prior to any etiquette.

Ethics in politics and economics

Ethics has been applied to economics, politics and political science, leading to several distinct and unrelated fields of applied ethics, including business ethics and Marxism.
Ethics has been applied to family structure, sexuality, and how society views the roles of individuals; leading to several distinct and unrelated fields of applied ethics, including feminism.

Moral Ethics has been applied to war, leading to the fields of pacifism and nonviolence.
Often, such efforts take legal or political form before they are understood as works of normative ethics. The UN Declaration of Universal Human Rights of 1948 and the Global Green Charter of 2001 are two such examples. However, as war and the development of weapon technology continues, it seems clear that no non-violent means of dispute resolution is accepted by all.

The need to redefine and align politics away from ideology and towards dispute resolution was a motive for Bernard Crick’s list of political virtues.

Environmental ethics

Ethics has been applied to analyze human use of Earth’s limited resources. This has led to the study of environmental ethics and social ecology. A growing trend has been to combine the study of both ecology and economics to help provide a basis for sustainable decisions on environmental use. This has led to the theories of ecological footprint and bioregional autonomy. Political and social movements based on such ideas include eco-feminism, eco-anarchism, deep ecology, the green movement, and ideas about their possible integration into Gaia philosophy.

Ethics in the professions

There are several sub-branches of applied ethics examining the ethical problems of different professions, such as business ethics, medical ethics, engineering ethics and legal ethics, while technology assessment and environmental assessment study the effects and implications of new technologies or projects on nature and society.
Each branch characterizes common issues and problems that arise in the ethical codes of the professions, and defines their common responsibility to the public, e.g. to preserve its natural capital, or to obey some social expectations of honest dealings and disclosure.

Ethics in health care

One of the major areas where ethicists practice is in the field of health care. This includes medicine, nursing, pharmacy, genetics, and other allied health professions. Example issues are euthanasia, abortion, medical research, vaccine trials, stem cell research, informed consent, truth telling, patient rights and autonomy, rationing of health care (such as triage).

Ethics in psychology

By the 1960s there was increased interest in moral reasoning. Psychologists such as Lawrence Kohlberg developed theories which are based on the idea that moral behavior is made possible by moral reasoning. Their theories subdivided moral reasoning into so-called stages, which refer to the set of principles or methods that a person uses for ethical judgment. The first and most famous theory of this type was Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.

Carol Gilligan, a student of Kohlberg’s, argued that women tend to develop through a different set of stages from men. Her studies inspired work on an ethic of care, which particularly defines itself against Rawlsian-type justice- and contract-based approaches.

Another group of influential psychological theories with ethical implications is the humanistic psychology movement. One of the most famous humanistic theories is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow argued that the highest human need is self-actualization, which can be described as fulfilling one’s potential, and trying to fix what is wrong in the world. Carl Rogers’s work was based on similar assumptions. He thought that in order to be a ‘fully functioning person’, one has to be creative and accept one’s own feelings and needs. He also emphasized the value of self-actualization. A similar theory was proposed by Fritz Perls, who assumed that taking responsibility of one’s own life is an important value.

R.D. Laing developed a broad range of thought on interpersonal psychology. This deals with interactions between people, which he considered important, for an ethical action always occurs between one person and another. In books such as The Politics of Experience, he dealt with issues concerning how we should relate to persons labeled by the psychiatric establishment as “schizophrenic”. He came to be seen as a champion for the rights of those considered mentally ill. He spoke out against (and wrote about) practices of psychiatrists which he considered inhumane or barbaric, such as electric shock treatment. Like Wittgenstein, he was frequently concerned with clarifying the use of language in the field — so, for example, he suggested that the effects of psychiatric drugs (some of which are very deleterious, such as tardive diskensia) be called just that: “effects”, and not be referred to by the preferred euphemisms of the drug companies, who prefer to call them “side effects”. Laing also did work in establishing true asylums as places of refuge for those who feel disturbed and want a safe place to go through whatever it is they want to explore in themselves, and with others.

A third group of psychological theories that have implications for the nature of ethics are based on evolutionary psychology. These theories are based on the assumption that the behavior that ethics prescribe can sometimes be seen as an evolutionary adaptation. For instance, altruism towards members of one’s own family promotes one’s inclusive fitness.

Legal ethics

Ethics has been applied to criminology leading to the field of criminal justice.

Ethics by cases

A common approach in applied ethics is to deal with individual issues on a case-by-case basis.

Casuistry is the application of case-based reasoning to applied ethics. Almost all American states have tried to discourage dishonest practices by their public employees and elected officials by establishing an Ethics Commission for their state.
Bernard Crick in 1982 offered a socially-centered view, that politics was the only applied ethics, that it was how cases were really resolved, and that “political virtues” were in fact necessary in all matters where human morality and interests were destined to clash.

The lines of distinction between meta-ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics are often blurry. For example, the issue of abortion is an applied ethical topic since it involves a specific type of controversial behavior. But it also depends on more general normative principles, such as the right of self-rule and the right to life, which are litmus tests for determining the morality of that procedure. The issue also rests on metaethical issues such as, “where do rights come from?” and “what kind of beings have rights?”

Another concept which blurs ethics is moral luck. A drunk driver may safely reach home without injuring anyone, or he might accidentally kill a child who runs out into the street while he is driving home. How bad the action of driving while drunk is in that case depends on chance.

Descriptive ethics

Some philosophers rely on descriptive ethics and choices made and unchallenged by a society or culture to derive categories, which typically vary by context. This leads to situational ethics and situated ethics. These philosophers often view aesthetics and etiquette and arbitration as more fundamental, percolating ‘bottom up’ to imply, rather than explicitly state, theories of value or of conduct. In these views ethics is not derived from a top-down a priori “philosophy” (many would reject that word) but rather is strictly derived from observations of actual choices made in practice:

• Ethical codes applied by various groups. Some consider aesthetics itself the basis of ethics – and a personal moral core developed through art and storytelling as very influential in one’s later ethical choices.

• Informal theories of etiquette which tend to be less rigorous and more situational. Some consider etiquette a simple negative ethics, i.e. where can one evade an uncomfortable truth without doing wrong? One notable advocate of this view is Judith Martin (”Miss Manners”). In this view, ethics is more a summary of common sense social decisions.

• Practices in arbitration and law, e.g. the claim by Rushworth Kidder that ethics itself is a matter of balancing “right versus right”, i.e. putting priorities on two things that are both right, but which must be traded off carefully in each situation. This view many consider to have potential to reform ethics as a practice, but it is not as widely held as the ‘aesthetic’ or ‘common sense’ views listed above.

• Observed choices made by ordinary people, without expert aid or advice, who vote, buy and decide what is worth fighting about. This is a major concern of sociology, political science and economics.

Those who embrace such descriptive approaches tend to reject overtly normative ones. There are exceptions, such as the movement to more moral purchasing.

The analytic view

The descriptive view of ethics is modern and in many ways more empirical. But because the above are dealt with more deeply in their own articles, the rest of this article will focus on the formal academic categories, which are derived from classical Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle.

First, we need to define an ethical sentence, also called a normative statement. An ethical sentence is one that is used to make either a positive or a negative (moral) evaluation of something. Ethical sentences use words such as “good,” “bad,” “right,” “wrong,” “moral,” “immoral,” and so on. Here are some examples:

• “Sally is a good person.”
• “People should not steal.”
• “The Simpson verdict was unjust.”
• “Honesty is a virtue.”
• “One ought not to break the law.”

In contrast, a non-ethical sentence would be a sentence that does not serve to (morally) evaluate something. Examples would include:

• “Someone took the stereo out of my car.”
• “OJ Simpson was acquitted at his trial.”
• “Many people are dishonest.”
• “I dislike it when people break the law.”

See also
• Core Values
• Empathy
• Moral absolutism
o Consequentialism
 Utilitarianism
o Deontology
 Categorical imperative
o Divine command ethics
o Universal prescriptivism
o Virtue ethics
• Prima Facie ethics (See W. D. Ross)
• Ethical relativism
o Situational ethics
o Ethical subjectivism
• Ethical nihilism
• Ethical skepticism
• Liberal humanist ethics
o (Secular) Humanist ethics
 International Humanist and Ethical Union
o Religious humanist ethics
• Altruism (ethical doctrine)
• Altruism in animals
• Ethical egoism
o Objectivist ethics
• Social contracts.
• Evolutionary ethics
• Bioethics
• Goodness and value theory
• Human rights
• Is-ought problem
• Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
• List of ethicists
• List of ethics topics
• Meta-ethics
• Morality
• Naturalistic fallacy
• Perfection (”Moral perfection”)
• The Golden Rule
• Virtue ethics

Alex Simring aids-write.org shite: definition

Alex Simring aids-write.org mousetrap logo

first movement of ahf not fab forum report–not getting caught (328)

328.01 suite sheet
328.02 how these notes were taken
328.03 my big picture
328.04 meeting notes—summary and transcription
328.05 an anthology of twenty-seven wiktionary definitions of useful terms, as well as excerpts from several wikipedia entries on the same topics
328.06 wikipedia on ethics

aids-write.org signs on as honorary co-sponsor for la county medical marijuana exposition & patient’s festival september 30 in weho (327)

June 17th, 2006

aids-write.org signs on as honorary co-sponsor for la county medical marijuana exposition & patient’s festival september 30 in weho (326)

Alex Simring aids-write.org asa logo patch

first annual la county
medical marijuana exposition &
patient’s festival

saturday, september 30, 2006
all day . . . 11:00 am to 9:00 pm!
west holllywood park auditorium & parking lot
west hollywood, ca
647 n. san vicente blvd (at santa monica blvd.)

speakers • booths • music • more!

join patients, loved ones, and advocates for a celebration of the 10-year anniversary of proposition 215! hosted by the la county medical marijuana task force & co-sponsored by la americans for safe access. aids-write.org is an honorary co-sponsor.

$5 donation requested, but
no one turned away for lack of funds

richard eastman
323-474-4602

la asa office
(323) 464-7719

aids-write.org address
rk@aids-write.org

www.aboutmedicalmarijuana.com

part of a nationwide effort to
get out the vote for november 7, 2006!

the la county medical marijuana task force presents los angeles’ premier 10-year anniversary celebration of proposition 215, california’s historic medical marijuana voter institute.. — the first annual la county medical marijuana exposition & patient’s festival. join us on sunday, september 30, 2006, at the west hollywood auditorium and parking lot in the heart of west hollywood, ca.

the day’s festivities include entertainment, special guest speakers, films, exhibits, vendors and food. patients and community members will have the chance to meet doctors, lwyers, elected officials and medical cannibis providers.

get registered to vote in the november 7th election!

a limited number of vendor and exhibitor spaces are available. contact richard eastman’s la county medical marijuana task force

co-sponsors

los angeles americans for safe access
http://www.safeaccessnow.org

california patients group
http://www.californiapatientsgroup.org

los angeles patients & caregivers group
http://www.lamedicalmarijuana.com

berkeley patients group
http://www.berkeleypatientsgroup.com

honorary co-sponsor
aids-write.org

i am surviving aids

the wo/men’s alliance for medical marijuana

gates to quit: philanthropy comes first (326)

June 16th, 2006

Gates will cut back duties at Microsoft; Bay State’s Ozzie inherits a top post

By Robert Weisman and Hiawatha Bray, boston Globe Staff | June 16, 2006

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gates photo
From left: Microsoft Corp. chairman Bill Gates, chief research and strategy officer Craig Mundie, chief software architect Ray Ozzie, and chief executive officer Steve Ballmer. (Getty Images)

Software pioneer Bill Gates , who founded Microsoft Corp. in 1975 and drove the explosive growth of personal computers worldwide over the past three decades, yesterday said he would step back from full-time work at Microsoft to focus on philanthropy and turn over the company’s top technical job to Massachusetts technology developer Ray Ozzie .

Gates, 50, the world’s richest man, who has drawn admiration and scorn for his famously aggressive business tactics, said he would be “reordering my priorities” to devote the bulk of his time to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which promotes health and education in poor countries.

While the change won’t take effect until July 2008, enabling a smooth transition, Gates said he is relinquishing his title of chief software architect immediately.

please click on this sentence to view the entire report from the boston globe